Net Profit Margin (NPM)

Net Profit Margin Formula | Example | Calculator

The Net profit margin formula is the profitability matrix that is used to measure how much net income a company earned from its each dollar sales.

Definition: What is the Net Profit Margin Ratio?

Investors and analysts used the NPM ratio to measure the efficiency of the company to Net Profit Margin (NPM) Formulameasure the management and forecast future profitability based on the sales forecast of the management.

Investors compare net income to total sales to see what percentage of revenue is used for the operating and not operating expenses, and what percentage of revenue is used to pay shareholders or reinvest in the company.

As compared to a low margin high margin is better. Because with high margin the company can easily convert more of its sales into cash at the end of the year or period. Between the industry the margin change drastically.


The net profit margin formula can be calculated by dividing the net income by total revenue.

Net profit margin = net income/total revenue

The calculation of net profit margin is so simple because from the income statement we easily get the values and put them in the above formula to calculate the NP margin. Total revenue is the money that is earned by the company through its operations during the period.

After the payment of all the expenses, leftover income during the period is called net income.

For a better understanding of the net profit margin calculation, we take the example.

Net Profit Margin Example

Under the same industry company X, Y, and Z working. The income statement of these companies shows the following report.

Based on net income, we can compare company X and company Y but it does not tell the profitability’s entire story. The income statement shows that company Y is more profitable than company X, and company Z.

According to the income statement company, X and company Z get equal profit so these have the same profitability.

Now we take the profit in dollar amount to know the revenue generated by these companies.

Now to find the profitability of these companies separately by using the NP margin equation.

From the above result, it is clear that Company X and Z has the same net profit margin whereas Company Y has 10% greater NPM than company X and Y.

Analysis and Interpretation

How do Analysts look at Net Profit Margin?

Net margin is one of the most useful measurements in financial measurement if compared to the history of the company.

Through historical analysis of any company, we analyze that the profitability of the company is increasing or decreasing. From the trend analysis, we can find the sustainability of the company. If the margin declines then it may be due to the high competition, reduced bargaining power, or inefficient cost of the company.

We can compare the margin of those companies through the NPM equation which works under the same industry. Because different industries have different cost bases.

For the understanding of the driver of margin analysts striping down the various elements of NP margin. This ratio is used to analyze its impact on the return measures such as ROE and DuPont analysis.

For more Financial Ratios Check: 

Net interest margin

Net operating income (NOI)

Net present value (NPV)

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