Asset Turnover Ratio | Analysis | Formula | Example | Calculation

The Asset Turnover Ratio is the efficiency ratio of the ability of the company to generate the sails fro assets by comparing the net sales with total assets. In simple words, it means that how the company generates sales from its assets efficiently.

From the total asset turnover ratio, we know that from each dollar of the company asset how much sales generated. For example, .2 mean we get from each dollar off asset  20 cents.

Asset Turnover Ratio Formula

When we divide the average net sales by the total average assets then we get the Asset Turnover ratio. The value of net sales we can be found by the income statement of the company. Which is minus fro the total sales from which truly measurement of the generated sales found by the company.

Whereas Average total asset can be found by adding the beginning and ending total balance assets and dividing this with 2 which is simple average for 2 years on balance sheet.


From this ratio, measurement is taken the progress of the company use its assets to generate the sales. If the ratio result is high then it is more favourable. if the ratio result is slow then not favourable. The high turnover ratio shows that the firm uses its assets for sales more efficiently. But if the Turnover ratio is not good when we say that the management of that firm is not good and that firm cannot use its assets for sales efficiently.

For example, if the ratio turnover is 1 then we say that sales of the company equal to the total assets of the company. Which means that for 1 dollar sale company invest one dollar in an asset.

It is up to the standard of the company that if the turnover ratio efficiently uses by the company they have a good standard.  If it has not good turnover then have not a good standard.

Here we provide an example that how we get the turnover ratio of the company and check the standard of the company.

Let the company has

Beginning assets= $1oo,ooo

Ending Assets=$200,000

Net sales 50,000

From the above values, we can find the Asset turnover ratio from the formula.

Asset Turnover Ratio

0.33= (50,000)/(100,000+200,000)/2

From the above result, it is clear that the turnover result is not good. Because for every dollar in assets firm generated sales 33 cents. So the firm startup is not so good.

You can learn more about:

Accumulated Depreciation to Fixed Assets Ratio

Account receivable turnover ratio

Asset coverage ratio


Sources of Working Capital: Short Term | Long Term | Spontaneous Sources

sources of working capital finance

There are multiple Sources of Working Capital available including spontaneous, short term and long term. Each one of them is further categorized into the following:

Sources of working capital Wikipedia

sources of working capital finance

Spontaneous sources of Working Capital:

  • Sundry Debtor
  • Bills Payable
  • Notes Payable
  • Accrued Expenses

Short Term Sources:

Short term sources of finance definition:

it can be defined as the extra money that a business need to operate its short term activities and run the business on short term basis. There are some common sources through which you can generate your short term financing:

Short term source are further categorized into following:

  • Internal sources
    1. Tax Provisions
    2. Dividend Provisions
  • External Sources
    1. Bank Overdraft
    2. Trade Deposits
    3. Public Deposits
    4. Bills Discounting

Long-Term Sources of working capital

Short term source are further categorized into following:

  • Internal sources
    1. Retained Profits
    2. Depreciation Provision
  • External Sources
    1. Share Capital
    2. Long Term Loans
    3. Debentures

You can also understand this situation with the help of below diagram:

Some main sources of short term finance are bank overdrafts,trade credit, factoring, credit card, lease and bank loans.

Now we will describe each of them as under:


This is the first source of Working capital finance. As its names show that this is a source which always ready and easily available to business in order to operate the business normal activities. The term and condition of the loans are dependent on the relation of the both parties buyer and seller. This source of funding also containing other related credit like sundry credit, bills payable and other accrued expenses etc.Spontaneous Sources of working capital

Business Working Capital Loans | See Your Options in Minutes‎

This loan is very significant to the organization as compared to other financing sources.because of its ‘effortless raising’ and ‘insignificant cost’.

Enlist below there are some spontaneous sources of working capital:


The cost factor and the quantum be subject to the T & C like of such loan that is a maximum limit of the credit, its time period and discount on cash payment. Now its depend upon the supplier how much limit they decide. Normally its depends upon the creditworthiness and the capacity of the business or buyers. Like this the credit period is also defined as 30 days, 45 days etc. if the buyer makes payment immediately on buying material then seller allows the discount.


Short term source of finance can be further categorized on the basis of Short-term internal and external sources:

Short-term Internal Sources


Short-term External Sources

Short-term working capital financing from banks such as


Short Term working capital finance

There are some current liabilities that can’t be delayed like Tax and dividend provisions. The resources which are set for making the payment for these liabilities refers as working capital till the time of payment.

Short term Working capital requires to operate routine activities and can be arranged through different channels like Banking or other financial authorities. As compared to spontaneous working capital sources, the banking channel WC sources are very costly but having very flexibility of time duration.


Long-term sources of financing required to meet the Long-term the need financial activities. These are financed through long term resources. Long tersources are categories into the long term internal sources and long term external sources:

Long-term Internal Sources

Long-term External Sources


long term Sources of working capital

Long-term internal contains Retained profits and provision for depreciation are as good as fund available the business without any implicit or explicit cost. if the organization have sufficient sources it can easily complete its Working Capital Cycle.

Concept of Working Capital: Types | Importance | Gross and Net Working Capital (with examples)

working capital management

Before going in the discussion of the Concept of Working capital we must introduce working capital. it refers to the amount which you have invested in current assets. It also is known as the soul of any business. Working capital is circulated in the business like blood in the human body. All the financial transaction related to the liabilities or assets can only be completed if you have a sufficient amount of working Capital.

The concept of Working Capital

Working Capital which is also known as with short-term WC is a difference between the current asset and the current liabilities. Its basic calculation can be done on the basis of its Gross current Asset.  Working capital term is associated with the source of financing from short term assets or short term source of financing.

What is the definition of working capital?

In simple word we can describe the Working Capital like as “Working capital is the amount of a Firm’s current assets excluding the amount of its current liabilities”.

Working capital is the part of total capital invested by the company in the business organization. In daily routine of business life WC refers to the amount that needed to operate the daily or routine activity of the organization.What is Working Capital

If you have the positive working capital in your organization it means that you have sufficient amount of assets or amount to fulfill your daily operational expenses.

What’s included in working capital?

Working capital sources by which you can measure the financial position or liquidation position of the enterprise. Working capital include the following:

What are examples of working capital?

Here is some information from balance sheet of XYZ Company:

Now with the help of working capital formula and the information above from Figure 1, XYZ firm can easily be calculated as under:

$160,000 – $65,000 = $95,000

How can you increase working capital ?

Business organization can be improved or increase working capital with help of following elements:

  1. Maximizing profitability
  2. issuing common stock or preferred stock for collection cash.
  3. replacing short-term debt with long-term Debt.
  4. long-term assets selling for cash
  5. settling short-term debts for less than the stated amounts

How to Calculate Working Capital ?

In  order to calculate the Working capital Current Ratio can be use. current ration of Working capital can be calculated through current asset divided by current liability. If the ratio is more than 1 it means your current assets are more than the liability.

How to Calculate Working Capital

What is Working capital management ?

Working capital management (WCM) refers to the decision making relating to the short term source of financing and working capital. This includes all the activity regarding the creation of relation in between the short term current assets and short-term liability.working capital management

The major goal of WCM is to make it sure that whether the organization or the business have the sufficient amount of working capital or current asset to meet its upcoming operations like short term debts or other routine operations.


Working capital is not the total capital but it is actally a part of total capital which an owner invest in the business. it is also described as the total current asset excluding total current liabilities of the business.


Working capital is a vital part of a business and can provide the following advantages to a business which increases the importance of Working capital management:


working capital is important for shareholders when they received higher Return on every penny which they invest on the business.


Proper working capital management lets the business to pay operate its short term obligations like raw meterial, salaries, payment to suppliers and other operating expenses on time whic helps in imroving the profile of the business and save it from bankruptcy.


according to the latest research better management leads toward the higher profitability ratio. the most important factors are managemtn of payable and account recievable in this regards.


efficient working capital management enables the business to generate the positive cash flow in the business, the end result of which higher business valuation and enterprise value.


if a business has its good relations with its stakeholders and make its all the payment on time the it will be befit for the business good will and also the benefit for favorable in some cases like discount from the suppliers etc.


when a firm make payment on time against Raw material purchase on credit. this will make toward the higher level of procduction and profitability. because when you make payment to your supplier, he will deliver your next order on time which enables your to improve your production level.


During the period of disaster and tough time efficient working capital management survive the business ramp up the production because of a sudden increase in demand.


Buisness with an efficient source of supply chain can beat the firm or can get competitive edge over other which has inefficient sourcing.

What are the 4 main components of working capital?

Working capital management is the effective and efficient use of all the components of current assets and current liability with the sole purpose to minimize total cost and optimize profit.
There are 4 main components involve in working capital:

  1. Cash Management:

Cash is considered as one of the most important components of current assets. All of the important functions and can only be performed with the help of cash. If an organization is better in its cash management, then there is highest chances of success of that business. Cash is required for perform most of teh important business transaction like from acquisition of raw materials to marketing of finished goods. So this is the major responsibility of cash manager to create the balance in between cash inflow and outflow.

  1. Receivables Management:

This is second most important component of working capital management. it can be defined as the claim from money owed to the firm from customers arising with the sale of goods to its customer. The term receivable also known as sundry debtors.

In simple word we can explain it as, this is the claim on money against the sale of the items to the customer of which payment yet not be collected/ received by the business.

Account receivable is the result of credit sale of the business. And the total volume of this component is depend upon the total credit sale and the credit policy of the business organization. So if the company are capable to collect the amount from its receivables on time, then it will be in position to make payment to the supplier on time. this will make the business able to complete the working capital cycle effectively.

  1. Inventory Management:

Inventory is the third and major part of working capital. If the business is good in its inventory management it means it has the ability to expand the earning or its shareholders. There are two main objective of efficient inventory management:

  • Try to minimization of the inventory in the inventory stock on hand
  • Smoothly flow of raw material for the sack of production and for sale.
  1. Accounts Payable Management:

Payables are your creditors or your supplier which also are the most important components of working capital. Payable management is closely related with the cash management. if your manage your payable effectively it means your production will never goes down. when you pay your creditor or supplier on time they will ensure to make your supply chain continuously. This will also a lead toward the improving the business reputation.

Why do we need working capital?


Working Capital which is also known as the Operating Asset of the business, is the total amount of asset that the company can liquidate anytime to meet its operational need.

All of the business organization keep the required level of working capital to payoff future payments or meet the current liabilities. With the help of WC one can easily measure the health of the company with respect to the short term or long term.

We need working Capital because of the following points:

  • Constrict Business Growth: Better management of WC let the business to the high level of growth.
  • Improved Working Capital: there should be balance in working capital. as you create the balance in your working capital the financial position will also improve.
  • Complete Daily Operation: Organization need WC because of meeting of there daily operation and other current liabilities.
  • Improved productivity: as you have enough working capital you will be in position to payoff you supplier. The end result will be in the form of uninterrupted production and improvement in productivity.
  • Increase the profitability: with better planning of working capital organization can increase their profit level.

Working capital cycle

Working Capital Cycle (WCC) is the defined as how much time it takes to convert your current assets and the current liability into cash. As you longer this cycle, the longer business to finance its required funds to operate its routine activities. There will high chances of survival when you manage your working capital smartly, by collecting from account receivable and payment to the creditors.

Working capital cycle

If there will be a positive working Capital cycle this will let the business to maintain the balance in its cash inflow and cash outflow.

Working capital cycle Example

You can easily understand the WC cycle with the following example:

A company that purchases raw material from suppliers and pays its suppliers in 30 days but takes longer time up to 60 days to collect the amount from its receivables has a working capital cycle of 30 days. This extra 30-day cycle can be complete by funding from external sources like from bank line or other lending authorities on the higher interest rate. These extra amounts of interest reduces the profitability of the company.what is Working capital cycle

Types of working capital

Types of working capital can be described on the basis of two categories:

  1. on the basis of the Balance sheet
  2. on the basis of Operating Cycle

Balance sheet concept of working capital

Balance sheet concept of Working Capital can be categorized into the following:


Balance sheet concept of working capital

what is the difference between working capital and net working capital?

Gross working capital

Gross working Capital concept describes to the total amount available to Finance the current asset or short term financing of the organization. But remember on the basis of GWC you can’t get the real financial position of the firm. confused..?Gross Working Capital

I am clearing this thing, because sometimes for financing purpose organization approaches the lending institution to borrow the funds. In this way they increase their current asset or gross working capital, but on the other hand the current liability will also increase. At the end the net working capital will remain the same.

So this concept only shows the increase or decrease trend of the assets of business and also has major advantages to make enable the firm to borrow the fund from Banks or other Financial authorities.

As per this concept:

Gross Working Capital = Total Current Assets

Networking Capital (NWC)

The net working capital concept refer that there is an excess amount of current asset with the firm over the current liabilities. The item which included in current asset are cash in hand, cash at bank balance, stock, debtors, bills amount of receivables. And on the other hand current liabilities has bills payables, creditors under its umbrella. If the amount of excess of current asset over current liability, you can say that company has its strong liquidity position.How to Calculate Net Working Capital

One thing that should be clear here is that with every increase of Gross working capital is not mean that there will also increase in the net capital. Increase in Net capital will be make only in situation if there is increase in Gross Working Capital without increase in current liabilities.

Networking Capital simple formula:

Net Working Capital = Current Assets-Current Liabilities

After subtracting current liabilities from current assets the remaining thing will be our net working capital. What is positive and negative working capital?


The following is the Balance Sheet of Bhilwara Textiles Private Ltd. as at 31st December, 2011:

Balance sheet view of working capital

Now, the Gross Working Capital will be:

Gross Working Capital

Net Working Capital will be:

Net Working Capital

The ratio of current assets to current liabilities will be Rs. 60,000: Rs. 30,000, or say 2:1.

Negative Working Capital And Positive Working Capital

What is positive and negative working capital?

Positive working capital shows the position of the that company has sufficient sources to meet its current liability within given time. and on the other hand Negative Working Capital indicates that business is unable to pay off its short term liabilities.

Therefore analysis forces that there should be balance working capital management. Extra amount of current asset is not favorable for the business.

Is negative working capital Bad?

Yes absolutely, because due to negative WC companies don’t have the sufficient amount of assets in order make the payment to the supplier and other creditors. At the end there in an extension in creditors or account payable which may reduce the profitability of the business.

What does negative working capital days mean?

OR What is ‘Days Working Capital’

Days working capital is the finance or accounting term which refers to the liquidation position of the company. It means how much time or how many days it takes for the business to convert the current asset into the revenue

What is difference between working capital and term loan?

There is difference between Working Capital and term loan. The loan is issued by the lending authorities like banks for the specific period of time and they charge specific amount of interest on this amount. While Working capital loan is the different thing. It is the difference between current asset and current liability.

Related: Working Capital Management (WCM) Definition | Strategies |Importance | Types and Examples

What is a Debt to Capital Ratio | Formula | Example | Analysis

What is a debt to capital ratio Definition?

What is a debt to capital ratio Definition?

What is a debt to capital ratio Definition?

Debt to capital is the liquidity ratio which calculates the use of a company’s financial leverage by comparing its net obligation to the net capital.

This ratio mostly uses for the measuring of the risk and allow us that from this we can calculate how a firm or company handle efficiently the downturn in the sale.

This ratio used for the highlight of debt to equity financing relation. this is very risky that anyone does the financing operation through the loans career because in this case, this is a must that repaid the principal and interest to the lender.

So the company which has a high ratio is considered as the company at most risk. Because for high ratio company, it is necessary that to maintain the same sales to maintain their debt servicing obligation. If the level of sales down of the high ratio company then there will be the solvency ratio.


Also, debt loan financing has many positive points for the abnormal to return into shareholder if loan use efficiently. For example, as compare to the cost of debt – shareholder return increase company earn more.

For the measurement of financial risk on the base of financial structure investor mostly use debt to capital ratio. If the ratio is high then it means that the company extensive using debt to finance its operation. But if the ratio is low then it means that the company raises its funds through company shareholder or current revenue.


When we divide the total debt of the company by sum of total debt and shareholder equity then we get the debt to capital ratio. that is

Debt to Capital Ratio Formula

In the above equation, total debt represents the total liabilities of the company and shareholders equity represent the total equity of the company like preferred stock, common stock, and minority interest.

Now we apply an example at the above formula.


Let we consider 2 company that is company A and company B. Total asset of the company A is $300M. Short term liability of the company is $30M and long term liability is $45M. The preferred stock of company A has worth $25M with $2M interest. $10M share of company trade at $15 per share. Calculate the Debt to Capital ratio of company A.

29.76%= (30+45)/(30+45)+(25+2+(15×10))

Now from the balance sheet of the company B if we calculated from the value

Total liabilities=$50M

1M$50 share=$50M

then the result calculated is bad Because the financial risk for company B is high. So for the investor company A is the best choice for investment.


Debt to the capital ratio used for the financial risk to lender and shareholder measuring. If the ratio is high then the risk will be greater but mostly it not occur. The high ratio does not mean that it is bad. If we use the example of the utility company which has high debt to capital ratio but it does not mean that the utility company is soon insolvent. Revenue of the utility company is consistent. which means that it wants to meet the obligation and not worry about the revenues downturn.

If the debt to capital ratio of the firm or company is greater then 1 then it is not good because debt is greater then capital which is risky for the company. Without an increase in earning if the company acquire more liabilities then there may go bankrupt.

If the debt to capital ratio is low then the company at low risk and debt of the company more then the capital. Investor gives priority to this company for investment.

For more Financial Ratio Check: 

Debt Ratio

Debt service coverage ratio

Debt to asset ratio